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What are the primary components of a fiber laser cutter?

Views: 0     Author: Seasoned Engineer Chole     Publish Time: 2024-05-14      Origin: Tianchen Laser

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Inside a Fiber Laser Cutter: The Key Components Explained

Inside a Fiber Laser Cutter: The Key Components Explained

By Chole, Lead Applications Engineer at Tianchen Laser

As a lead applications engineer at Tianchen Laser, one of China's top manufacturers of fiber laser cutting machines, I've spent years designing, building and servicing fiber lasers for customers worldwide. One question I'm often asked is: What are the main components inside a fiber laser cutter and how do they work together?

In this article, I'll break down the key elements of a fiber laser, explain their functions, and share some insights on how to select the right configuration for your needs. Whether you're considering purchasing a fiber laser or just curious about the technology, I hope you find this helpful. Let's dive in!

Fiber Laser Source

At the heart of the system is the fiber laser source, which generates the high-power beam used for cutting. It consists of a seed laser, active fiber, pump diodes and output coupler.

The seed laser creates a low-power signal that's fed into a fiber doped with rare earth elements like ytterbium. Energy from pump diodes excites the active fiber, amplifying the laser light. This process of pumping and amplifying is repeated through a chain of fiber components until the desired power is reached, typically from 500W to 15kW or higher.

Motion System

To precisely guide the laser beam along the cut path, fiber laser cutters use a CNC motion system with high-speed servo motors and drives. The laser head is mounted on a gantry that moves in X and Y directions over the cutting bed. Larger machines may have a moving table for additional travel.

Linear encoders provide position feedback to the control system to ensure accuracy. Lightweight, low-inertia components allow for faster acceleration and higher cutting speeds. Well-designed motion systems deliver positioning accuracy of 0.02mm or better.

Cutting Head

The cutting head is a complex assembly that focuses the raw laser beam and delivers it to the workpiece along with the assist gas. Inside the head, a series of lenses and mirrors concentrate the beam to a small spot, typically around 0.1 to 0.4mm diameter.

A nozzle directs a stream of high-pressure gas onto the material surface. This gas, usually oxygen for mild steel or nitrogen for stainless and aluminum, blows away molten metal to create a clean cut. The gas type and pressure can be adjusted to optimize cut quality for various materials and thicknesses.

Inside a Fiber Laser Cutter: The Key Components Explained

Control System

Tying everything together is the CNC controller, the brain of the fiber laser cutter. It synchronizes laser power, motion, gas delivery and other parameters to execute the programmed cut sequence.

The controller typically includes a touchscreen HMI for operator input, as well as ports for loading cut files from a network or USB drive. Advanced controllers offer automated functions like nesting, part sorting and reporting to maximize productivity.


Fiber laser cutters generate a lot of heat, both in the laser source and at the cutting head. To prevent damage and maintain stability, this heat must be removed with a chiller system. The chiller circulates coolant, usually water or a glycol solution, through the laser components.

Chiller capacity is sized based on laser wattage, with higher-power models requiring larger cooling systems. Proper chiller maintenance, including regular coolant changes and filter cleaning, is essential for reliable laser performance.

Safety Enclosure

Finally, fiber laser cutters are equipped with a fully-enclosed cutting cabin to contain laser radiation, sparks, fumes and debris. The enclosure features a heavy-duty steel frame with laser-safe viewing windows.

Large doors provide access for loading and unloading material. Fume extraction ports remove dust and smoke from the interior. Safety interlocks prevent the laser from firing if a door is open. The enclosure protects both the operator and the machine.

Choosing the Right Configuration

With so many components and options, specifying a fiber laser cutter can seem overwhelming. That's where an experienced partner like Tianchen Laser can help.

We offer a wide range of standard and custom fiber laser solutions to match any application and budget. Our expert sales engineers will work with you to select the ideal combination of laser power, cutting head, motion system, and software for your needs.

Whether you're cutting mild steel, stainless, aluminum, copper, brass or exotic alloys, we have a fiber laser to deliver the speed and precision you require. With wattages from 1kW to 30kW and beyond, there's a Tianchen Laser for every job.

Get a Quote Today

Get a Quote Today

Ready to experience the performance of a Tianchen fiber laser? Contact us today for a quote. Our knowledgeable team is standing by to answer your questions and help you find the perfect fiber laser solution.

With over 20 years of experience and we are the top 10 best selling fiber laser machines and installed worldwide, Tianchen Laser is your trusted partner for advanced fiber laser technology. We provide not only the equipment, but also the training, support and service to keep you cutting at peak productivity.

Let us show you how a Tianchen fiber laser can revolutionize your business. Request a quote now and take the first step towards faster, more profitable laser cutting.

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